Muhammed Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928, in Kafr-al Meselha, the son of an inspector of the Ministry of Justice. Mubarak was educated at Egypt's national Military Academy and Air Force Academy and at the Frunze General Staff Academy in Moscow. Mubarak served in a number of military posts, including deputy minister of war from 1972 to 1975; in 1975, he became vice president. After Sadat was assassinated, on October 6, 1981, Mubarak became president.
Mubarak has been an old-style strongman with full control of the government. Mubarak's presidency has been dominated by pressures for political reform and by Mubarak's love/hate relationship with the United States. Now 82-years-old he has proved to be a far more durable leader than anyone could have imagined.